Nuevo León (Spanish for "New León", after the former kingdom in Spain) is a state located in north-eastern Mexico. It borders the states of Tamaulipas to the north and east, Zacatecas and San Luis Potosí to the south, and Coahuila to the west. To the north, Nuevo León accounts for a 15 km stretch of the U.S.-Mexico border adjacent to the U.S. state of Texas.
It was originally founded by Alberto del Canto, although frequent raids by Chichimecas, the natives of the north, prevented the establishment of almost any permanent settlements. Subsequent to the failure of del Canto to populate Nuevo León, Luis Carvajal y de la Cueva, at the head of Portuguese and Spanish settlers, requested permision from the Spanish King to attempt to repopulate the area.
The capital city of Nuevo León is Monterrey.
Nuevo León has an extreme climate, and there is very little rainfall throughout the year. The territory covers 64,924 km², and can be divided into three regions: a hot, dry region in the north, a temperate region in the mountains, and a semi-arid region in the south. The Sierra Madre Oriental mountain range affects in an important way the lay of the land forming the Galeana and Doctor Arroyo plateaus, the Iguana, Picachos, Papagayos, and Santa Clara mountain ranges, and the Pilón, Ascensión, and Río Blanco valleys. As for hydrography, the San Juan River supplies the El Cuchillo dam, which provides water for Monterrey and the metropolitan area. There are also the Cerro Prieto, La Boca, Vaquerías, Nogalitos, and Agualeguas dams. Laguna de Labradores is a major lake in Nuevo León, and Pozo del Gavilán is a natural well. Both are located in the Galeana municipality. The flora of the region includes brush and pastures in the low regions, and pine and oak trees in the mountains. The fauna includes black bears, mountain lions, javelinas, foxes, coyotes, and white-tailed deer, along with smaller species.
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